"Kids, for all their youth and vigor, aren't indestructible. They're always growing, which makes their health needs different from those of the average adult. Enter pediatricians: trained medical experts whose sole mission is to help children reach their maximum potential. Pediatrics, which focuses on the medical care of children from birth through adolescence, is one of the most fascinating specialized areas of modern medicine. Treating kids for everything from mild fevers to severe developmental disorders offers doctors an unrivaled set of challenges. For one thing, children often have a harder time communicating how-and what-they're feeling. Furthermore, they're constantly learning and exploring, which makes them especially prone to illness and injury. And the older they get, the more diagnostic complexities arise. As painful as it can be to see suffering kids, to step into the shoes of a trained pediatrician is to better understand how these medical heroes diagnose common and uncommon illnesses in their young patients. The world of pediatrics makes for an exciting adventure in contemporary medicine, whether you're - a parent or caretaker who wants to know when (and when not) to worry; - a practicing pediatrician looking for professional tips and strategies to use on the job; - a medical student considering pediatrics as a potential field of study; or - a casual learner hungry for the same medical problem-solving popularized in television and film. Filled with the same high level of intrigue and insight that he's brought to his other courses in the Medical School for Everyone series, Dr. Roy Benaroch invites you to follow him on more grand rounds cases-this time inside a typical pediatrics office. In Medical School for Everyone: Pediatrics Grand Rounds, you'll don the doctor's white coat for an accessible 24-lecture journey into the world of pediatric medicine. A general pediatrician and professor at Emory University's School of Medicine, Dr. Benaroch introduces you to young patients who'll sometimes test the limits of your knowledge-and challenge a pediatrician's diagnostic skills-as you uncover clues to figure out appropriate diagnoses. And all the while, you'll gain fresh knowledge about the world of pediatrics, including how pediatricians perform general examinations, how they cope with difficult patients (and their parents), and how they address some of the unique medical issues that only children face. You'll also get a glimpse into how the field has evolved over the last century, and where it may be headed in the future. Learn How Pediatricians Treat Kids Good pediatric care, according to Dr. Benaroch, isn't just about treating illness. It's about making sure children have every opportunity to make the most of their lives as they become adults. Throughout Pediatrics Grand Rounds, you'll quickly see just how multifaceted and nuanced the medical treatment of children is, whether dealing with minor diagnoses like runny noses and ear infections or life-changing ones like cerebral palsy and neonatal pneumonia. Each of these stand-alone lectures presents you with a single case or series of related cases that you tackle alongside Dr. Benaroch, from initial symptoms and workup to the diagnosis and resulting treatment. Here are just a few of the young patients you'll encounter during your "office hours": - Jenna, a 14-year-old girl whose complaints of stomach pain and resultant weight loss lead you on an in-depth exploration of different types of abdominal pain and their sources. - Vinny, a nine-year-old boy who comes to you with a small fever and cough. and then comes back with more complicated symptoms. - Ezra, a young boy whose symptoms expose you to a rare (but well-known) complication of ear infections. - Mabel, a three-year old with one-sided nasal discharge whose treatment requires some out-of-the-box thinking. - Chaz, a 16-year-old young man whose chief complaint of headaches sparks an examination of complications from underlying health concerns. A Panic-Free Resource for a Child's Health and Wellness Whether you decide to experience these lectures in sequence or watch them in the order of your greatest areas of interest, Pediatrics Grand Rounds is packed with information about children's health. But sometimes children (whether babies, infants, or teenagers) have concerns that extend beyond the traditional realm of medicine. Dr. Benaroch has crafted the perfect tool for parents and caretakers who want a panic-free resource for thinking about all the major aspects of their child's health and wellness. - Sleep: A good night's rest is one of the most important things children of any age need. But sometimes, children have trouble sleeping-which can eventually spiral into a whole host of medical issues. You'll get sound advice on everything from "resetting" a child's body clock to cultivating healthy associations with sleep in fussy children. - Discipline: How do you deal with compulsive lying and temper tantrums? According to Dr. Benaroch, disciplining your child when necessary isn't about punishment. It's about teaching. "Punishment is one tool," he says. "But it's often not the best tool. And punishment used too often just won't work. Effective discipline takes multiple tools, time, patience, and love." - Mental health: The psychological and emotional well-being of a child is paramount to their future success in adulthood. And while the assistance of a child psychologist is sometimes necessary, the best behavioral and psychiatric care starts with the physicians who've grown to know a child best. A pediatrician's knowledge of a family as a child ages gives him or her important insights into potential root causes-and can also be a source of strength for the child's family. Solve the Big Mysteries inside Little Patients Resoundingly popular with lifelong learners, the Medical School for Everyone series is a powerful stage on which Dr. Benaroch exhibits his remarkable educational skills and his depth of medical knowledge. But what elevates this particular course from its companions is Dr. Benaroch's career as a practicing pediatrician. Whether he's dealing with a premature infant, a case of international adoption, or a homeless youth, Dr. Benaroch treats every case in this course with care and compassion. You'll quickly learn how the best pediatricians are caretakers and counselors, and are always there for the children they love to help. The experience of helping sick children is exciting and rewarding-especially when it transforms lives for the better. "They're little kids, sure," Dr. Benaroch says of the patients in this course. "But there are some big mysteries to solve." About Your Professor Dr. Roy Benaroch is a general pediatrician, an author, and an educator. He earned his B.S. in Engineering at Tulane University, followed by his medical degree at Emory University. He completed his residency through the Emory University's affiliated hospitals in 1997, serving as chief resident and instructor of pediatrics in 1998. He has continued his involvement on the Emory faculty as an Adjunct Assistant Professor of Pediatrics. Dr. Benaroch was board certified in general pediatrics in 1997 and works in full-time pediatric practice near Atlanta, Georgia. In addition to his clinical responsibilities, Dr. Benaroch teaches medical students and residents at his practice and gives regular lectures to physician's assistants at Emory University. Dr. Benaroch has published two books on parenting and pediatric health topics: Solving Health and Behavioral Problems from Birth through Preschool: A Parent's Guide and A Guide to Getting the Best Health Care for Your Child. He also has authored two book chapters in Visual Diagnosis and Treatment in Pediatrics. Dr. Benaroch has a blog for parents and health professionals at pediatricinsider.com. His essays on pediatric health have been widely published on the Internet, and he has served as a featured expert on WebMD.com. In addition to his work in private practice and as a teacher and writer, Dr. Benaroch also serves on the Board of Directors of the Cobb Health Futures Foundation, a nonprofit group dedicated to public health for people of all backgrounds, and The Children's Care Network, a clinically integrated network of more than 1,000 Atlanta-area pediatric care providers. Lesson Descriptions 1. Fever: Then and Now How do pediatricians treat the unique needs of children? This introductory lecture examines early pediatrics (using Helen Keller as an example), walks you through a 21st-century pediatric exam, notes the challenges pediatricians face, and presents a "fever action plan" you can refer to when a child has a fever. 2. The Challenges of Pediatrics Assume the mantle of medical student and join Dr. Benaroch in his pediatric office, where you'll meet Jenna, a 14-year-old girl suffering from abdominal pain. As you follow the steps pediatricians follow to narrow down a diagnosis, you'll also learn about different types of abdominal pain and their root causes. 3. Struggling with Ear Pain Focus on one of the most common medical problems diagnosed by anyone who provides medical care for kids: ear infections. While it may seem like a simple problem, it turns out there are a lot of ways ear infections present themselves-and a lot of ways doctors treat them. 4. The Allergic March Welcome to the complex world of childhood allergies. How do pediatricians know when to diagnose a specific allergy? How do allergies cause different problems at different ages? What are the best ways to avoid specific allergens? Follow one patient on the "allergic march" as his symptoms evolve, beginning with eczema. 5. Problems with Growth All healthy children should grow well, but sometimes they don't grow as expected. Consider the catalysts of growth in the human body and the places where growth can go wrong, including hormonal imbalances and rare genetic conditions. Then examine one young patient's growth dilemma and see if you can figure out the cause. 6. Childhood Obesity Meet Chaz, a 16-year-old whose complaint of a "headache" sparks an in-depth discussion on childhood obesity. You'll cover the orthopedic complications, the psychological problems teens can suffer, the genetic influences of obesity, and ways to support healthy change in obese children. 7. The Critically Ill Child Children are mostly healthy and strong, but they're nevertheless constantly vulnerable to infectious organisms. Learn some of the specific critical thinking and detective skills great pediatricians use to tell genuinely sick children from those who are going to be OK. Plus, discover why pediatricians should "never trust a newborn." 8. Getting the Most out of Checkups In this lecture, learn the inner workings of routine pediatric checkups. Dr. Benaroch reviews standard childhood growth and development; discusses how screening tests, chart reviews, standard examinations, and "anticipatory guidance" work; and offers insights to help parents get the most out of their child's next scheduled checkup. 9. Noisy Breathing Get a window into how pediatricians uncover potentially serious symptoms that they sometimes can't see or hear. Topics include the "differential" (a list of possible diagnoses), the importance of describing symptoms as accurately as possible, and why listening and building good communicative rapport are the most important tools in a pediatrician's toolbox. 10. Trouble in School What role can (and should) pediatricians play when a child isn't doing well in school? Discover how doctors ferret out clues from kids unwilling (or embarrassed) to talk, and see how they work with parents and teachers to accommodate and alleviate scholastic stresses. 11. The Premature Baby Visit a neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) that provides specialized care to sick newborns. You'll learn about Apgar scores (which judge a newborn's health), the dangers of neonatal pneumonia and congenital heart disease, and how pediatricians take care of premature infants. 12. Pain as a Warning Sign Some pain is fleeting. Some pain should make parents worry. Discover how different specialists (including orthopedists, rheumatologists, oncologists, and psychiatrists) think about and approach pain in children. Then, find out how doctors break the news of a life-changing diagnosis to a child and his or her family. 13. Better Sleep for the Whole Family Focus on helping children of any age (and their parents) get a good night's sleep. You'll learn how to establish healthy sleep associations with children, go inside sleep issues like narcolepsy and sleep apnea, and learn how to help "reset" a child's body clock to get better sleep. 14. Developmental Delay Getting to know children as they grow lets pediatricians see how problems manifest at different ages. Here, meet Casey, whose development over time is a window into the world of delays in growth stages-and discover how doctors and families adapt to these circumstances. 15. Is This Child Normal? In this powerful lecture, a patient case study offers a look at what Dr. Benaroch calls "the grey zones of normal." Witness how a pediatrician's ongoing relationship with his or her patient establishes the trust necessary to discuss issues of patient privacy, bullying, gender issues, and drug use. Find out how these confidences lead to an accurate diagnosis. 16. International Adoption Discover what health challenges children adopted from other countries are likely to face when arriving in the United States. How do pediatricians handle language barriers? What screening methods are appropriate to get a good picture of a child's health? The secret, you'll learn, is doing the best you can with the clues you've got. 17. The Tools of Discipline Meet several children trying to overcome behavioral challenges, including a compulsive liar, a six-year-old who won't sleep in his own bed, and an 18-month-old girl with temper tantrums. Along the way, you'll learn when to contact a specialist, the keys to effective discipline, and more. 18. Psychiatry in Pediatrics From headaches to irritable bowel syndrome, many symptoms are affected by the connection between the mind and body, which makes understanding psychology essential to pediatric care. Here, Dr. Benaroch illustrates how pediatricians navigate the waters of behavioral and psychosomatic symptoms that have a significant impact on the lives of children and their families. 19. Scratching for Clues Kyle, a homeless teen, arrives in your office complaining of a "lump" in his neck. The path to Kyle's diagnosis leads you through topics ranging from toxic stress to prevalent diseases facing homeless youth (including mononucleosis and sexually transmitted diseases). 20. Common Symptoms, Uncommon Diagnoses Test your creativity with cases where common symptoms mask uncommon causes. There's Mabel, whose "cold" has another cause; Peter, whose vomiting is not a typical tummy bug; Crystal, whose legs are covered in mysterious sores; and Vipul, whose nosebleed illustrates the unusual ways that children can get themselves into trouble. """ 21. Coping with Pediatric Tragedies Sometimes, tragedies happen. Learn how pediatricians examine their patients, investigating every potential factor that might cause medical distress. Discover what pediatricians do in painful situations, and get an intimate view into how pediatricians work with families facing a loss. 22. The Girl Who Turned Yellow Hailey arrives in your office with a urinary tract infection (UTI). But what happens when the treatment leads to something that's even more potentially dangerous? Gain insights into the two types of UTIs and the advantages-and disadvantages-of antibiotic usage. 23. A Different Cause of Vomiting Follow Dr. Benaroch as he drills down through potential problems to the underlying cause of one patient's stomach pain and vomiting. Along the way, you'll learn how doctors determine the source of abdominal pain by dividing the abdomen into four quadrants, which contain different organs. 24. Pediatrics of the Future Examine several cases that illustrate just how far pediatrics has come-and where the field might be able to go next. You'll get up close and personal with the future of medicine, including gene therapy, fetal surgery, cochlear implants, and pharmacogenomics (which can tailor medications to an individual's genetic makeup). "