This course looks at the development of Skepticism and Atheism as a challenge to religious faith and belief from the Enlightenment to modern times. It traces the development of skeptical philosophies and presents how theologians, both Christian and Jewish, have argued and debated the arguments. The diverse worldviews are taught in a respectful and balanced way. With the advent of modernity, the questions on which philosophers and religious thinkers had been reflecting for centuries underwent a dramatic and unprecedented change.For over a thousand years, the existence of God and the importance of religion had gone unquestioned in the Western world. Any discussion was confined to the best ways of understanding and putting into practice a religious truth that had already been revealed.But beginning in the 16th century, the Protestant Reformation and the Scientific Revolution began to erode the position of authority held by religion. A new willingness to confront religious authority and a new respect for reason and its accomplishments began to counter established ways of thinking based on revealed religious truth.As a result, modern philosophy began to separate from theology, and new philosophers began constructing a universal, human rationality independent of faith. For the first time in human history, it had become possible to not simply ponder faith and its forms of expression, but to challenge it as a fundamental truth-and to even question the very existence of God.This schism fundamentally changed the course of Western civilization, and it has had consequences that remain with us to this day. Now, with Skeptics and Believers: Religious Debate in the Western Intellectual Tradition, noted scholar and Professor Tyler Roberts of Grinnell College leads you through a 36-lecture journey that will help you understand exactly what the debate has been and will continue to be about.The Challenging Debate That Has Defined Western CultureThis conversation is especially important in the West, which still plays host to an active debate between belief and skepticism far more vigorous than in other parts of the world.It's a debate that increasingly swirls around the role religion should have in our lives, not only in terms of our personal decisions about worship but over how much influence religion is to have in the public arena, including politics, education, and medicine and other sciences. The unmistakable conclusion is that each of us has a vital stake in understanding the nuances of the debate. By gaining a richer understanding of the debate's key aspects-including the nature of the conflict, the meaning of the arguments, and what is at stake both philosophically and theologically-you can add significantly to the level of sophistication you already bring to one of today's most far-reaching issues and increase your understanding of both Western civilization's past and the direction of its future.Grasp the Ideas of the West's Most Influential Theological and Philosophical MindsSkeptics and Believers is not a course in religious doctrine but one of intellectual and philosophical exploration, examining more than three centuries of debate in the Western world about the nature of religious faith and its compatibility with reason. Drawing on some of Western civilization's greatest theological and philosophical minds, Professor Roberts even-handedly follows and analyzes the arguments of a broad range of skeptics and believers, including the likes of Thomas Aquinas, Denis Diderot, Karl Barth, Karl Marx, Sigmund Freud, Daniel Dennett, Martin Luther, John Locke, Immanuel Kant, David Hume, Soren Kierkegaard, and many others.Professor Roberts's presentation maintains the sense of a true conversation across time, so that one never loses the thread of how one idea relates to another as he weaves a vast amount of material into a coherent whole that amounts to far more than the sum of its parts. The result is one of the most intellectually satisfying plunges into philosophical and theological thought you will ever take.